Rails3 Route 用法集锦[转]

http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_6721c4c70100ooeb.html
默认路由:
Ruby代码
# Rails3:
match '/:controller(/:action(/:id))'
# Rails2:
map.connect ':controller/:action/:id'


正则路由:
Ruby代码
# Rails3:
match 'products/:id', :to => 'catalog#view'
# Rails2:
map.connect 'products/:id', :controller => 'catalog', :action => 'view'


命名路由:
Ruby代码
# Rails3:
match 'logout', :to => 'sessions#destroy', :as => 'logout'
# Rails2:
map.logout 'logout', :controller => 'sessions', :action => ''


根路由:
Ruby代码
# Rails3:
root => 'welcome#show'
# Rails2:
map.root :controller => 'welcome', :action => 'show'


路由简写技巧:
:to 键的省略:
Ruby代码
match 'account' => 'account#index'
# 相当于:
match 'account', :to => 'account#index'

match 'info' => 'projects#info', :as => 'info'

注意:
:as 在rails3中是改变 helper, 在rails2中是改变 path

当路径和控制器(及action)一至时,可省略指派控制器部分
Ruby代码
match 'account/overview'
# 相当于:
match 'account/overview', :to => 'account#overview'


Verb路由
当需要限制http请求方法的时候通过键 :via ,也可以直接把方法写在最前面:
Ruby代码
get 'account/overview'
# 相当于:
match 'account/overview', :via => 'get'

match 'account/setup', :via => [:get, :post]
# 支持get\post\put\delete四种HTTP方法


resources路由:
Ruby代码
resources :posts, :except => [:index]
resources :posts, :only => [:new, :create]

# edit_post GET /posts/:id/modify(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"edit"}
resources :posts, :path_names => { :edit => 'modify' }

resources :projects do
resources :tasks, :people
end

resources :products do
collection do
get :sold
post :on_offer, :search
end
get :buy, :on => :member
post :batch, :on => :collection
end

resource :session do
get :create
end


:shallow用法:
Rails3中的shallow用法与Rails2中一致
Ruby代码
resources :blogs, :shallow => true do
resources :comments
end

使用:shallow前后相同部分:
blog_comments GET /blogs/:blog_id/comments(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"index"}
blog_comments POST /blogs/:blog_id/comments(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"create"}
new_blog_comment GET /blogs/:blog_id/comments/new(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"new"}
blogs GET /blogs(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"index"}
blogs POST /blogs(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"create"}
new_blog GET /blogs/new(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"new"}
edit_blog GET /blogs/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"edit"}
blog GET /blogs/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"show"}
blog PUT /blogs/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"update"}
blog DELETE /blogs/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"blogs", :action=>"destroy"}


使用:shallow前后不同部分:
不使用shallow选项:
edit_blog_comment GET /blogs/:blog_id/comments/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"edit"}
blog_comment GET /blogs/:blog_id/comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"show"}
blog_comment PUT /blogs/:blog_id/comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"update"}
blog_comment DELETE /blogs/:blog_id/comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"destroy"}

使用shallow选项后:
edit_comment GET /comments/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"edit"}
comment GET /comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"show"}
comment PUT /comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"update"}
comment DELETE /comments/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"comments", :action=>"destroy"}
可以看出使用shallow选项后,对于已经存在的资源使用简化方式操作,具体行为涉及到 edit\show\update\destroy 四种
另外,shallow选项的有效范围是对自身及嵌套的资源都有效,如下面这个例子:
Ruby代码
resources :publishers do
resources :magazines do
resources :albums, :shallow => true do
resources :photos do
resources :images
end
end
end
end

这个例子中 albums、photos、images 都会使用简化方式,而 magazines 不会。特别注意:这种嵌套方式极不推荐,一般嵌套的层级最好不要超过一级

scope路由
:path 改变Path,:module 改变Controller, :name_prefix || :as 改变 helper
Ruby代码
scope 'admin' do
resources :posts
end
# 行当于:
scope :path => 'admin' do
resources :posts
end

生成路由:
posts GET /admin/posts(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"index"}
posts POST /admin/posts(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"create"}
new_post GET /admin/posts/new(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"new"}
edit_post GET /admin/posts/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"edit"}
post GET /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"show"}
post PUT /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"update"}
post DELETE /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"destroy"}
Ruby代码
scope :module => 'admin' do
resources :posts
end
# 相当于:
resources :posts, :module => 'admin'

生成路由:
posts GET /posts(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"index"}
posts POST /posts(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"create"}
new_post GET /posts/new(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"new"}
edit_post GET /posts/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"edit"}
post GET /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"show"}
post PUT /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"update"}
post DELETE /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"destroy"}
Ruby代码
scope :name_prefix => 'admin' do
resources :posts
end
# 相当于:
resources :posts, :name_prefix => 'admin'

生成路由:
admin_posts GET /posts(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"index"}
admin_posts POST /posts(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"create"}
new_admin_post GET /posts/new(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"new"}
edit_admin_post GET /posts/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"edit"}
admin_post GET /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"show"}
admin_post PUT /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"update"}
admin_post DELETE /posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"posts", :action=>"destroy"}
Ruby代码
scope 'admin', :module => 'admin', :name_prefix => 'admin' do
resources :posts
end
# 相当于:
namespace 'admin' do
resources :posts
end

生成路由:
admin_posts GET /admin/posts(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"index"}
admin_posts POST /admin/posts(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"create"}
new_admin_post GET /admin/posts/new(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"new"}
edit_admin_post GET /admin/posts/:id/edit(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"edit"}
admin_post GET /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"show"}
admin_post PUT /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"update"}
admin_post DELETE /admin/posts/:id(.:format) {:controller=>"admin/posts", :action=>"destroy"}

在路由中定义跳转:
Ruby代码
match "/posts/github" => redirect("http://github.com/rails.atom")

# 地址 /foo/1 会自动跳转到 /bar/1s
match "/foo/:id", :to => redirect("/bar/%{id}s")

# /account/proc/inosin 会自动跳转到 /inosins
match 'account/proc/:name', :to => redirect {|params|
"/#{params[:name].pluralize}" }

match "/stories" => redirect {|p, req| "/posts/#{req.subdomain}" }


路由中的限制:
Ruby代码
# 限制 id 只能为数字
match "/posts/show/:id", :to => "posts#index", :id => /\d+/
match "/posts/show/:id", :to => "posts#index", :constraints => {:id => /\d+/}

# 限制子域名
match "photos", :constraints => {:subdomain => "admin"}

# 限制访问者 IP
constraints(:ip => /127.0.0.1/) do
match '/questions', :to => redirect("http://www.stackoverflow.com/")
end

# 当访问者 ip 是 192.168.1.* 的来访者访问 子域名为 "test"
match "/ttt" => proc{|env| [200, {}, ["hello test"]]}, \
:constraints => {:subdomain => "test", :ip => /192\.168\.1\.\d+/}


路由通配符:
Ruby代码
resources :photos, :id => /\d+/
match 'photos/*other' => 'photos#unknown'
#上面这两行路由则会把不符合7种path的其他url全部解析到PhotoController#unknown中去处理,params[:other]可得到path中/photos/之后的部分,注意这两行的顺序不能颠倒

match 'books/*section/:title' => 'books#show'
# 例如:books/some/section/last-words-a-memoir 中 params[:section] = "some/section", params[:title] = "last-words-a-memoir".

match '*a/foo/*b' => 'test#index'
# 例如:zoo/woo/foo/bar/baz 中 params[:a] = "zoo/woo", params[:b] = "bar/baz"


Rack:
Ruby代码
match "/foo", :to => proc {|env| [200, {}, ["Hello world"]] }

match 'rocketeer.js' => ::TestRoutingMapper::RocketeerApp

RocketeerApp = lambda { |env|
[200, {"Content-Type" => "text/html"}, ["javascripts"]]
};